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Assess Male Reproductive Genetic Health

Take control of your reproductive health with our accurate and reliable sperm aneuploidy testing.
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Sperm DNA Fragmentation

Sperm DNA fragmentation can have a significant impact on male fertility and pregnancy outcomes. It is important to understand the causes and diagnosis of sperm DNA fragmentation in order to effectively treat the condition and improve fertility.

Sperm DNA fragmentation refers to the breaking of DNA strands in the sperm cell. This can result in reduced fertility and increased risk of miscarriage or birth defects. Understanding sperm DNA fragmentation is crucial in the diagnosis and treatment of male infertility

Causes of Sperm DNA Fragmentation

Sperm DNA fragmentation can be caused by a number of factors, including:

Oxidative Stress

This is when there is an imbalance between free radicals and antioxidants in the body, which can lead to cell damage.

Environmental Factors

Exposure to toxins, chemicals, radiation, and other environmental factors can cause sperm DNA fragmentation.

Lifestyle Factors

Interpretation of family and medical histories to assess the chance of disease occurrence or recurrence.

Genetic Factors

In some cases, genetic mutations can cause sperm DNA fragmentation.


Certain infections can cause inflammation in the reproductive tract, which can lead to sperm DNA fragmentation.

Sperm DNA Fragmentation Index (DFI):

Sperm DFI stands for DNA fragmentation index, which is a measure of the percentage of sperm with damaged DNA. A high DFI can indicate poor sperm quality and fertility issues. Measure DNA fragmentation in sperm cells by:

Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl Transferase dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL): This technique uses a fluorescent dye to label the broken ends of DNA strands in sperm cells. The cells are then analyzed using microscopy, which allows for visualization and quantification of DNA fragmentation.

Comet Assay: This technique involves embedding sperm cells in agarose gel and subjecting them to electrophoresis. This causes fragmented DNA to migrate away from the nucleus, forming a “comet” shape that can be visualized and quantified using microscopy.

Sperm Chromatin Dispersion (SCD): This technique involves treating sperm cells with a detergent to remove proteins that bind to DNA, allowing for visualization of fragmented DNA using microscopy.

Sperm DNA fragmentation is illustrated with a vector image of medical professionals examining a DNA fragmented structure.
Vector illustration for Sperm Aneuploidy testing.

Sperm Aneuploidy Testing

Sperm Aneuploidy Testing is a diagnostic test used to evaluate the genetic material of sperm cells. Aneuploidy refers to an abnormal number of chromosomes in a cell, which can lead to infertility or an increased risk of genetic disorders in offspring.

Why is Sperm Aneuploidy Testing Important?

Sperm aneuploidy testing is important because it can provide valuable information about male fertility and the potential risk of genetic abnormalities in offspring. Aneuploidy can be caused by a variety of factors, including advanced age, exposure to toxins or radiation, and genetic mutations. By identifying aneuploidy in sperm cells, healthcare providers can work with couples to develop appropriate fertility treatment plans or genetic counseling.

Y Chromosome Microdeletion

Y chromosome microdeletion is a genetic condition in which part of the Y chromosome is missing. Y chromosome microdeletion can lead to infertility or a reduced ability to produce sperm. Y chromosome microdeletion is caused by a deletion of genetic material on the Y chromosome. The most common symptom of Y chromosome microdeletion is infertility. Men with Y chromosome microdeletion may have a reduced ability to produce sperm or may not produce any sperm at all.

Y chromosome microdeletion are categorized based on the region of the Y chromosome that is affected. The three most common types regions evaluated are:

AZF (Azoospermia Factor) a, b, and c:

These deletions involve the genes in the AZF region of the Y chromosome, which are important for sperm production. AZF deletions are the most common cause of male infertility.

AZFc (Azoospermia Factor c):

This deletion involves a different region of the Y chromosome and can lead to a reduction in sperm count and motility.


This deletion involves both the AZFb and AZFc regions of the Y chromosome and can lead to a combination of reduced sperm count, motility, and quality.

Vector image of a medical professional testing for Y Chromosome Microdeletion.
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Schedule Your Sperm Aneuploidy Testing Today

Don’t let an abnormal number of chromosomes lead to infertility or genetic disorders in your offspring. Book your testing appointment today and take the first step towards a healthy and happy family life.
A DNA structure.

Bilateral Absence of Vas Deferens (Bavd)

Bilateral absence of vas deferens (BAVD) is a genetic condition characterized by the absence of the vas deferens, which is the tube that carries sperm from the testes to the urethra during ejaculation.

Causes of BAVD
Causes of BAVD

BAVD is a genetic condition that is caused by mutations in the CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) gene. Mutations in the CFTR gene can lead to a buildup of thick, sticky mucus in various parts of the body, including the vas deferens.

Symptoms of BAVD
Symptoms of BAVD

The most common symptom of BAVD is infertility. Men with BAVD are unable to father children naturally because their sperm cannot be transported through the vas deferens. However, they may still produce sperm, which can be retrieved through other methods such as testicular sperm extraction (TESE) or sperm aspiration.

Diagnosis of BAVD
Diagnosis of BAVD

BAVD is typically diagnosed through a physical examination, medical history, and genetic testing. An ultrasound may also be used to confirm the absence of the vas deferens.

Genetic Testing for BAVD
Genetic Testing for BAVD

Genetic Testing for BAVD is performed by mutation analysis of CFTR Gene.

Treatment of BAVD
Treatment of BAVD

There is currently no cure for BAVD. However, there are several treatment options that can help men with BAVD father children. One option is surgical sperm retrieval, such as testicular sperm extraction (TESE) or sperm aspiration, followed by artificial insemination by IVF with ICSI.

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